Genetic research

DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid
   In 1962 the Nobel Prize in medicine, the most honored scientific award in the world, was given to an American and two British scientists. What they had discovered, in the 1950's, was the structure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), an essential component of genes. As you already know, genes are the small units of chromosomes that convey characteristics, such as color of hair and eyes, from parent to child. By understanding DNA, one can understand how a gene is structured—what scientists Call the "genetic code."
   By unraveling the genetic code, the experimenters with DNA came closer to explaining how different life forms are created. This break-through made possible new research into viruses, bacteria, human cells, and diseases such as cancer. Scientists found it possible to reproduce life forms in the laboratory. Major advances in treating illness were anticipated.