Graphic arts

   In its original meaning the term "graphic arts" included all fine arts which represent objects on a flat surface. It later came to mean only linear expression, as in drawing. Today the term is usually limited to art forms produced by printing methods, such as woodcuts or photographs. On the borderline between art and science, graphic art functions in both divisions. One of its main purposes is communication. The graphic arts are used to diagram or illustrate ideas and to document contemporary life; they are the accepted vehicle for various forms of persuasion and comment, such as satire, caricature, humor, and propaganda. Graphic media fell into aesthetic disrepute with the general decline caused by the Industrial Revolution. William Morris was among the first to revive interest in this field and in the 20th century a broadened appreciation of the values of all media has resurrected the graphic arts to their proper artistic level.