Caesar Augustus
   The Caesars were rulers of ancient Rome. The words "czar" and "kaiser" both came from the word "Caesar." "Caesar" was at first the last name of a famous ruler, Julius Caesar. Then it became a title that meant "emperor."
   Julius Caesar was a great warrior. He conquered all the part of Europe that is now France. He even marched his armies into Britain. He also took them to the east and conquered part of Asia.
   After one of his battles in Asia, Caesar sent back a famous message to Rome. It is famous because it told so much in so few words. The message was Veni, vidi, vici. Translated into English the message is, "I came, I saw, I conquered."
   Julius Caesar was more than a good warrior. He brought about many changes that were good. For one thing he made a new calendar. It has come down to us almost as he made it. The month of July was named for him.
   The month of August was named for an-other famous Caesar—Augustus. Augustus was the ruler of the great Roman Empire when Christ was born. It was an order of his that sent Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem. But Augustus did not have any idea that people in later centuries would think that the birth of Jesus was the most important happening in his reign.
   The real name of Augustus was Octavius. The Romans gave him the name Augustus because they admired him so much. "Augustus" means "admired" or "revered." Some of his people even thought that he was a god.
   Augustus was a good ruler. He ruled for 45 years. This long reign was one of the bright spots in the history of Rome.
   There were other Caesars. Some were good. Some were bad. At least under them the Romans had peace and prosperity for two centuries.