FUMARIC ACID, MALEIC ACID, two organic acids having the same molecular composition (C4H4O4) and the same chemical constitution (COOH.CH:CH.COOH), but differing in physical and chemical properties. Fumaric acid occurs in fumitory and some other plants, and may be prepared by heating its stereoisomer maleic acid. It forms very sour, needle-like crystals that are almost insoluble in water, and sublimes at 200° C. At higher temperatures it is converted into anhydrous maleic acid. Maleic acid crystallizes in the form of rhombic prisms which melt at 130° C. and are readily soluble in water.
FULVIA was a Roman woman of the first century B.C., of dissolute character. She was married first to P. Clodius, then to Q. Scribonius Curio, and lastly, in 44 B.C., to Mark Antony. In 40 B.C., during his absence in the East, she raised a revolt in Italy against Augustus, and was besieged in Perusia. On its fall she escaped, and joined Antony at Athens, but was coldly received by him, and in the same year she died at Sicyon. Cicero attacked her character in his Second Philippic.
Fumigation is the destruction of disease germs, insects, and other objectionable animal life by means of toxic gases. In principle fumigation is similar to chemical warfare: a toxic gas is allowed to accumulate in an enclosed space until the concentration becomes lethal to all animal life within that space. Among the pests which may be destroyed by fumigation are moths, mosquitoes, flies, bedbugs, fleas, and such insect carriers as rats, mice, and squirrels.