Bronze alloy

Monday, September 29, 2014

   The alloy called bronze is a mixture of copper and tin. Bronze has been used for at least 5,000 years—much longer than iron.
   People of the Old Stone Age used tools and weapons made of stone. In the New Stone Age they had much better stone weapons. When copper was discovered, our early ancestors began making tools of copper. But copper was not hard enough to take the place of stone entirely.
   Probably bronze was first made by accident. Some rocks have in them both copper ore and tin ore. When early man discovered bronze, he found it was much harder than copper. Early man learned to use bronze for tools and weapons. Later it was found that iron made even better tools and weapons. Iron gradually took the place of bronze.
   The time when people used bronze for tools and weapons is called the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age came at different times in different parts of the world. The early civilizations of the Near East were in their Bronze Age more than 4,000 years ago. The Indians of South America were still in their Bronze Age when Columbus reached the New World more than 500 years ago.
   Today many beautiful bowls and statues and doors are made of bronze. Much hardware is made of it. Bronze is used in bells, too. One big use of bronze in the United States is for pennies.
   Things made of bronze last for a very long time. Bronze can stand heat and cold, wind and rain, and much handling. It lasts so well that it is sometimes called the "eternal metal."

Buffalo Bill

Sunday, September 28, 2014

   A century ago there were no western movies and television shows to watch. But when Buffalo Bill's (William F. Cody, 1846-1917) famous Wild West show came to town, the people could crowd into a big circus tent and see real Indians and cowboys of the old West. Indians in war paint riding bareback on their western ponies and shouting war whoops thundered into the ring. Behind them came buckskinned cowboys shooting as they rode. Buffalo Bill himself was the star of the show. He performed amazing tricks with his guns.
   William Cody was born in Iowa, but his family soon moved to Kansas. When he was only 14 he was hired as a rider for the Pony Express. He learned to know the Great Plains well. He knew both the land and the Indians who lived on it. Before long he became a scout for the army and helped fight the Indians.
   Buffalo Bill got his nickname because he killed so many "buffaloes," or bison. When the Kansas Pacific Railroad was being built across the plains, young Cody agreed to furnish the workmen with meat. In one year he killed nearly 5,000 bison.
   In 1883 he gathered many Indians and cowboys together and started his Wild West show. People liked it so much that he traveled about with it for many years.
   The town of Cody, Wyo., was named for Buffalo Bill.


Tuesday, September 23, 2014

Caesar Augustus
   The Caesars were rulers of ancient Rome. The words "czar" and "kaiser" both came from the word "Caesar." "Caesar" was at first the last name of a famous ruler, Julius Caesar. Then it became a title that meant "emperor."
   Julius Caesar was a great warrior. He conquered all the part of Europe that is now France. He even marched his armies into Britain. He also took them to the east and conquered part of Asia.
   After one of his battles in Asia, Caesar sent back a famous message to Rome. It is famous because it told so much in so few words. The message was Veni, vidi, vici. Translated into English the message is, "I came, I saw, I conquered."
   Julius Caesar was more than a good warrior. He brought about many changes that were good. For one thing he made a new calendar. It has come down to us almost as he made it. The month of July was named for him.
   The month of August was named for an-other famous Caesar—Augustus. Augustus was the ruler of the great Roman Empire when Christ was born. It was an order of his that sent Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem. But Augustus did not have any idea that people in later centuries would think that the birth of Jesus was the most important happening in his reign.
   The real name of Augustus was Octavius. The Romans gave him the name Augustus because they admired him so much. "Augustus" means "admired" or "revered." Some of his people even thought that he was a god.
   Augustus was a good ruler. He ruled for 45 years. This long reign was one of the bright spots in the history of Rome.
   There were other Caesars. Some were good. Some were bad. At least under them the Romans had peace and prosperity for two centuries.

What is a depressant?

A depressant is a drug that reduces the activity of various body functions. Some depressants such as anesthetics, sedatives, antiepileptics, narcotics analgesics, and some muscle relaxants, slow nervous and muscular activity by acting on the central nervous system. Tranquilizers are depressants that affect only part of the nervous system. They induce relaxation without causing total depression.

Facts about birthstones

Facts about birthstones
Did you know? The current assignation of stones to months was established in 1912