Who were the Hyksos?

   The Hyksos were invaders from Palestine who settled in ancient Egypt in the 1700's b.c. They gradually seized control of Egypt from the pharaohs (kings). The Hyksos dominated Egypt throughout the 1600's b.c., and until their defeat by the Egyptians in 1570 B.C. They introduced the horse, the horse-drawn chariot, new weapons, and a new type of fortification in Egypt. These changes later helped Egypt to build a vast empire. The Hyksos are sometimes called shepherd kings, but the Egyptian word Hyksos actually means chieftains of foreign countries.