Who was John C. Fremont?

   John Charles Fremont (1813-1890), was an American general and explorer, born at Savannah, Ga. He spent the years 1838-1839 exploring the area between the Missouri River and the British frontier and obtained a lieutenant's commission with the U.S. Topographical Corps. In 1842, with governmental approval, Fremont led a small exploration party through the Wind River Range in the Rocky Mountains. Upon returning, he reported extensively on the meteorology, botany, geology, and geography of the region and designated points later fortified by the United States. In 1845 he cleared northern California of Mexican troops, but in pursuit of this goal he became involved with American authorities in California, the result of which was a court-martial (1846-1847). Having been found guilty of mutiny and other charges, he resigned from the army in 1848. Five years later he made his fifth expedition across the continent. In 1856 he was the first Republican candidate for the presidency, and in 1861 President Abraham Lincoln appointed him a major general in command of the western Union army, a position he lost because of a dispute with a subordinate. He was territorial governor of Arizona from 1878 to 1883.